首先，孟俊一教授介绍了此次工作坊的总体安排和特点，然后阐述了多层次合作教学模式的定义，以及其如何在此次工作坊中运用于英语教材的分析。具体而言：1） The workshop for EFL textbook adaptation by using the multilayered peer coaching practice model for in-service professional development of tertiary EFL teachers is activity-based，rather than lectured-based, and it has the follow-up practice. 2) Multilayered peer coaching practice refers to the practice of peer coaching within a team teaching context, which can offer teachers more opportunities to support one another in their work. In the TEFL setting, this means that teachers may experience two layers of collaboration. The first layer is team teaching in which four teachers can be involved as a team so that common issues and problems will be discussed and solved by pooling the wisdom of the team members. The second layer is peer coaching where two dyads will be formed within the team so that the two teachers in each dyad will work together to reflect on current practices, expand, refine, and build new skills, share ideas; teach each other; conduct classroom research; or solve problems in the workplace. 3) The textbook “Comprehensive English” is used to exemplify the use of multilayered peer coaching, where all teachers work together to select and adapt the book, and then use the book in follow-up practice and in their daily teaching.
Principles of Communicative Language Teaching（CLT）
1. Principles of CLT:
Communicative principle: Activities that involve real
communication promote learning.
Task principle: Activities in which language is used for
carrying out meaningful tasks promote
Meaningfulness principle: language that is meaningful to the
learner supports the learning
2. Features of CLT
authentic and creative
meaning rather than form
relevant to the needs
3. The implementation of language skills
In listening and speaking, students should have the chance to listen to and produce what is meaningful, authentic, unpredictable, and reactive if ever possible.
In reading, since communicative courses focus on meaning rather than on form, the reading skill is redefined to focus on the purpose of reading.
In writing, students should make the writing more meaningful and authentic, that is to practice writing to express their own feelings or describe their own experience.
4. Communicative activities.
MMC system. Mechanic drills, meaningful drills and communicative drills. / Functional communicative activities, and Asocial interaction activities,(P. 22)
Six criteria for evaluating communicative classroom activities:
content, not form
variety of language
no teacher intervention
no materials control
Task-based Language Teaching （TBLT）
1. Definition of a task:
[a task] is a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a form, buying a pair of shoes, making an airline reservation, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter…In other words, by “task” is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. (Long 1985)
…a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form.(Nunan 1989)
Tasks are activities where the target language is used by the leaner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.(Wills 1996)
A task is essentially goal-oriented; it requires the group, or pair, to achieve an objective that is usually expressed by an observable result, such as brief notes or lists, rearrangement of jumbled items, a drawing, a spoken summary. This result should be stainable only by interaction between participants: so within the definition of the task you often find instructions such as “reach a consensus” or “find out everyone’s opinions”. (Ur 1996)
2. Four components of a task:
A purpose: making sure the students have a reason for undertaking the task.
A context: the task can be real, simulated or imaginary, and involves sociolinguistic issues, such as the location, the participants and other important factors.
A process: getting the students to use learning strategies such as problem solving reasoning, inquiring, conceptualizing and communicating.
A product: there will be some form of outcome, either visible (a written plan, a play, a letter. etc.) or invisible (enjoying a story, learning about another country, etc.)
3. Exercises, exercise-task and tasks
Exercises: focus on individual language items
Tasks: Purposeful and contextualized communication
Exercise-task: halfway between tasks and exercises.
Based on Tomlinson’s (1998) conception of what constitutes effective language teaching materials, we believe good textbooks should have the following features.
Good textbooks should:
• Attract the students’ curiosity, interest and attention
• Help students to feel at ease.
• Help students to develop confidence by providing tasks or activities that students can cope with.
• Meet students’ needs.
• Expose the students to language in authentic use.
• Provide the students with opportunities to use the target language to achieve communicative purposes.
• Take into account that the positive effects of language teaching are usually delayed.
• Take into account that students differ in learning styles.
• Maximize learning potential by encouraging intellectual, aesthetic and emotional involvement which stimulates both right and left brain activities.
Maley (1998) suggested the following options to adapt materials:
• omission: the teacher leaves out things deemed inappropriate, offensive, unproductive, etc., for the particular group.
• addition: where there seems to be inadequate coverage, teachers may decide to add to textbooks, either in the form of texts or exercise material.
• reduction: where the teacher shortens an activity to give it less weight or emphasis.
• extension: where an activity is lengthened in order to give it an additional dimension. (For example, a vocabulary activity is extended to draw attention to some syntactic patterning.)
• rewriting/modification: teacher may occasionally decide to rewrite material, especially exercise material, to make it more appropriate, more “communicative”, more demanding, more accessible to their students, etc.
• replacement: text or exercise material which is considered inadequate, for whatever reason, may be replaced by more suitable material. This is often culled from other resource materials.
• re-ordering: teachers may decide that the order in which the textbooks are presented is not suitable for their students. They can then decide to plot a different course through the textbooks from the one the writer has laid down.
• branching: teachers may decide to add options to the existing activity or to suggest alternative pathways through the activities. (For example, an experiential route or an analytical route)
最后，“综合英语”教学团队的项目负责人孟俊一教授总结了此次教学工作坊活动，并布置团队成员撰写“教学工作坊活动反思（Reflection on the workshop practice，which may cover topics, activities, and suggestions, etc.)”，一周后提交。同时，还安排了继第二期工作坊后多层次教学合作模式在本学期进行的后续教学任务及其相关准备。